Re: [Rd] [R] unvectorized option for outer()

From: Tony Plate <tplate_at_acm.org>
Date: Mon 31 Oct 2005 - 20:49:02 GMT

Duncan Murdoch wrote:

> On 10/31/2005 2:15 PM, Tony Plate wrote:
> 

>> [snipped comments irrelevant to this post]
>>
>> So, here's a first pass at a general Vectorize() function:
>>
>> Vectorize <- function(FUN, vectorize.args) {
>> if (!all(is.element(vectorize.args, names(formals(FUN)))))
>> stop("some args to vectorize are not args of FUN")
>> FUNV <- eval(substitute(function(x, ...) mapply(FUN, x,
>> MoreArgs=list(...)), list(FUN=FUN)))
>> formals(FUNV) <- formals(FUNV)[c(rep(1, length(vectorize.args)), 2)]
>> names(formals(FUNV))[seq(along=vectorize.args)] <- vectorize.args
>> body(FUNV) <- body(FUNV)[c(1, 2, rep(3, length(vectorize.args)), 4)]
>> body(FUNV)[seq(3,len=length(vectorize.args))] <-
>> lapply(vectorize.args, as.name)
>> FUNV
>> }
> 
> 
> I'd think the formals of the result should be identical to the formals 
> of the input.
> 
> Regarding the environment of the result:  it is used to determine the 
> meaning of symbols that aren't defined within the function, e.g. things 
> like "eval", "substitute", etc.  So I'd say that you don't want anything 
> special there, as long as you make sure that FUN is always evaluated in 
> its original environment.
> 
> Generally I don't like the look of that manipulation of the body of your 
> result; it looks pretty fragile to me.  But I haven't worked out exactly 
> what you're doing, or whether it's possible to avoid it.
> 
> Duncan Murdoch
> 

Thanks for explanation about the environment.

I should have said, that manipulation of the body creates the call

   mapply(FUN, A, alpha, MoreArgs=list(...)) from the original (x is a dummy argument)

   mapply(FUN, x, MoreArgs=list(...))

Are there better ways to create that call? The difficulty is that the argument names in the call are derived from the actual arguments to Vectorize(), and there is an arbitrary number of them.

As for the formals of the result being identical to the formals of the input, I couldn't see any easy way to do that and still support optional arguments, e.g., if the input function formals were (a, b, t=1), then the result function would look something like:

function(a, b, t=1) mapply(FUN, a, b, t=t)

and missing(t) would not work correctly within FUN (with even more serious problems for optional arguments with no defaults).

> 

>> ssd <- function(A,alpha,Y,t) sum((Y - A*exp(-alpha*t))2)
>> # SSD is a vectorized version of ssd
>> SSD <- function(Avec, alphavec, ...) mapply(ssd, Avec, alphavec,
>> MoreArgs=list(...))
>> # Vectorize(ssd, c("A", "alpha")) should produce
>> # function(A, alpha, ...) mapply(ssd, A, alpha, MoreArgs=list(...))
>> Y <- 1:5; t <- 3
>> outer(1:3, 1:2, SSD, Y, t)
>> outer(1:3, 1:2, Vectorize(ssd, c("A", "alpha")), Y, t)
>>
>> > # transcript of running the above commands
>> > Vectorize(ssd, c("A", "alpha"))
>> function (A, alpha, ...)
>> mapply(function (A, alpha, Y, t)
>> sum((Y - A * exp(-alpha * t))^2), A, alpha, MoreArgs = list(...))
>> <environment: 0x1361f40>
>> > Y <- 1:5; t <- 3
>> > outer(1:3, 1:2, SSD, Y, t)
>> [,1] [,2]
>> [1,] 53.51878 54.92567
>> [2,] 52.06235 54.85140
>> [3,] 50.63071 54.77719
>> > outer(1:3, 1:2, Vectorize(ssd, c("A", "alpha")), Y, t)
>> [,1] [,2]
>> [1,] 53.51878 54.92567
>> [2,] 52.06235 54.85140
>> [3,] 50.63071 54.77719
>> >
>>
>> [There are a couple of minor design issues around syntax -- what is
>> the best way of specifying the arguments to vectorize? (e.g., what
>> about an interface that allowed Vectorize(ssd ~ A * alpha)?), and
>> should the function name rather than the definition appear in the
>> result of Vectorize()? But those are issues of secondary importance.]
>>
>> I have to confess I don't really understand how environments work with
>> functions, so I don't know if this Vectorize() function will work in
>> general. What is the appropriate environment for returned value of
>> Vectorize()? Is this approach to creating a Vectorize() function on
>> the right tack at all? Any other improvements or fixes?
>>
>> -- Tony Plate
>>
>>
>> Peter Dalgaard wrote:
>>
>>> Thomas Lumley <tlumley@u.washington.edu> writes:
>>>
>>>
>>>> On Sun, 30 Oct 2005, Jonathan Rougier wrote:
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>> I'm not sure about this. Perhaps I am a dinosaur, but my feeling is
>>>>> that if people are writing functions in R that might be subject to
>>>>> simple operations like outer products, then they ought to be writing
>>>>> vectorised functions!
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> I would agree. How about an oapply() function that does multiway
>>>> (rather than just two-way) outer products. Basing the name on
>>>> "apply" would emphasize the similarity to other flexible, not
>>>> particularly optimized second-order functions.
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> In fairness, it should probably be said that not all problems
>>> vectorize naturally. One example is
>>>
>>> ssd <- function(A,alpha) sum((Y - A*exp(-alpha*t))^2)
>>>
>>> However, it should be worth noting that with the mapply() function at
>>> hand, it is pretty easy to turn a non-vectorized function into a
>>> vectorized one.
>>> SSD <- function(A,alpha) mapply(ssd, A, alpha)
>>>
>>> (Anybody want to try their hand on writing a general Vectorize()
>>> function? I.e. one that allowed
>>>
>>> outer(Avec, alphavec, Vectorize(ssd))
>>>
>>> to work.)
>>
>>
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>
>

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https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-devel Received on Tue Nov 01 07:52:01 2005

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