# Re: [R] nlme fixed effects specification

From: roger koenker <roger_at_ysidro.econ.uiuc.edu>
Date: Sat, 05 May 2007 10:21:08 -0500

Ivo,

I don't know whether you ever got a proper answer to this question. Here is a kludgy one -- someone else can probably provide a more elegant version of my diffid function.

What you want to do is sweep out the mean deviations from both y and x based on the factor fe and then estimate the simple y on x linear model.

I have an old function that was originally designed to do panel data models that looks like this:

"diffid" <- function(h, id)
{

```         if(is.vector(h))
h <- matrix(h, ncol = 1)
Ph <- unique(id)
Ph <- cbind(Ph, table(id))
for(i in 1:ncol(h))
Ph <- cbind(Ph, tapply(h[, i], id, mean))
is <- tapply(id, id)
Ph <- Ph[is,  - (1:2)]
h - Ph
```

}

With this you can do:

set.seed(1);
fe = as.factor( as.integer( runif(100)*10 ) ); y=rnorm(100); x=rnorm (100);
summary(lm(diffid(y,fe) ~ diffid(x,fe)))

HTH, Roger

On May 4, 2007, at 3:08 PM, ivo welch wrote:

> hi doug: yikes. could I have done better? Oh dear. I tried to make
> my example clearer half-way through, but made it worse. I meant
>
> set.seed(1);
> fe = as.factor( as.integer( runif(100)*10 ) ); y=rnorm(100); x=rnorm
> (100);
> print(summary(lm( y ~ x + fe)))
> <deleted>
> Coefficients:
> Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)
> (Intercept) 0.1128 0.3680 0.31 0.76
> x 0.0232 0.0960 0.24 0.81
> fe1 -0.6628 0.5467 -1.21 0.23
> <deleted more fe's>
> Residual standard error: 0.949 on 89 degrees of freedom
> Multiple R-Squared: 0.0838, Adjusted R-squared: -0.0192
> F-statistic: 0.814 on 10 and 89 DF, p-value: 0.616
>
> I really am interested only in this linear specification, the
> coefficient on x (0.0232) and the R^2 of 8.38% (adjusted -1.92%). If
> I did not have so much data in my real application, I would never have
> to look at nlme or nlme4. I really only want to be able to run this
> specification through lm with far more observations (100,000) and
> groups (10,000), and be done with my problem.

>
> now, with a few IQ points more, I would have looked at the lme
> function instead of the nlme function in library(nlme). [then
> again, I could understand stats a lot better with a few more IQ
> points.] I am reading the lme description now, but I still don't
> understand how to specify that I want to have dummies in my
> specification, plus the x variable, and that's it. I think I am not
> understanding the integration of fixed and random effects in the same
> R functions.
>
> thanks for pointing me at your lme4 library. on linux, version
> 2.5.0, I did
> R CMD INSTALL matrix*.tar.gz
> R CMD INSTALL lme4*.tar.gz
> and it installed painlessly. (I guess R install packages don't have
> knowledge of what they rely on; lme4 requires matrix, which the docs
> state, but having gotten this wrong, I didn't get an error. no big
> deal. I guess I am too used to automatic resolution of dependencies
> from linux installers these days that I did not expect this.)
>
> I now tried your specification:
>
>> library(lme4)
>> lmer(y~x+(1|fe))
> Linear mixed-effects model fit by REML
> Formula: y ~ x + (1 | fe)
> AIC BIC logLik MLdeviance REMLdeviance
> 282 290 -138 270 276
> Random effects:
> Groups Name Variance Std.Dev.
> fe (Intercept) 0.000000000445 0.0000211
> Residual 0.889548532468 0.9431588
> number of obs: 100, groups: fe, 10
>
> Fixed effects:
> Estimate Std. Error t value
> (Intercept) -0.0188 0.0943 -0.199
> x 0.0528 0.0904 0.585
>
> Correlation of Fixed Effects:
> (Intr)
> x -0.022
> Warning messages:
> 1: Estimated variance for factor 'fe' is effectively zero
> in: `LMEoptimize<-`(`*tmp*`, value = list(maxIter = 200L, tolerance =
> 0.0000000149011611938477,
> 2: \$ operator not defined for this S4 class, returning NULL in: x
> \$symbolic.cor
>
> Without being a statistician, I can still determine that this is not
> the model I would like to work with. The coefficient is 0.0528, not
> 0.0232. (I am also not sure why I am getting these warning messages
> on my system, either, but I don't think it matters.)
>
> is there a simple way to get the equivalent specification for my smple
> model, using lmer or lme, which does not choke on huge data sets?
>
> regards,
>

> /ivo
>
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