From: Kingsford Jones <kingsfordjones_at_gmail.com>

Date: Fri, 09 May 2008 13:45:07 -0700

https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code. Received on Fri 09 May 2008 - 21:04:04 GMT

Date: Fri, 09 May 2008 13:45:07 -0700

Tom,

I've never used lm.gls, but a quick look at the help page suggests that, unlike gls, it doesn't have built-in functionality to estimate parameters to structure the response/error covariance matrix. I believe it assumes the covariance matrix is known (hopefully someone will correct me if I'm wrong about that).

So, building off the answer I sent to you on April 29 (pasted below rather than hyper-linked because parts of the conversation appear to be missing from the archive), if y ~ N(XB, Sigma) where Sigma = sigma^2(Lambda) and Lambda is decomposed into VCV, where V is diagonal and describes a variance structure and C has 1's on the diagonal and the off-diagonals describe the correlation of the errors, then the 'weights' argument to gls will allow you to estimate a variance structure for V (see ?varClasses) and the 'correlation' argument allows you to estimate the correlation structure for C (see ?corClasses). You'll notice the first corClass listed on the help page is corAR1 (there's also corCAR1 if you don't have discrete lags). See example(gls) for an example of how it's used, and Pinheiro and Bates (2000) for detailed examples.

Frank Harrell has commented on this list that gls is underused ( http://tolstoy.newcastle.edu.au/R/help/06/08/32487.html ). Given the fact that it can drastically reduce the constraints of the constant variance and independence assumptions of the ubiquitous linear model, I agree.

good luck,

Kingsford Jones

Discussion on weights in gls from 2008-Apr-29

Thanks Kingsford! I will cc r-help.

varPower() works for me. I want to use lm because predict.gls does not give lwr and upr values, and also the bptest and ncv.test only work with lm models...

- Hide quoted text - On 4/29/08, Kingsford Jones <kingsfordjones_at_gmail.com> wrote:

hi Tom,

Basically, a simple way to model non-constant variance when the variance increases (the common case) or decreases with the conditional mean of your response is to use "weights = varPower()", and gls will estimate the parameter \alpha that defines the power relationship between the regression line and the error variances. If for some reason you wanted to use lm rather then gls for your final model, then after estimating the gls model you could supply a weights argument to lm of the form:

weights = fitted(your.gls.model)^(-2*the.alpha.estimate.from.the.gls.model).

and you should get the same (or very close) estimates as from the gls model but have a model of class 'lm'.

There are many different ways to model non-constant variance and you'll need to choose one that is appropriate for your data. If the model I described isn't appropriate then you should look at Ch 5 of P&B to learn about the other varFunc classes.

good luck,

Kingsford

ps - would you mind forwarding to r-help in case this others have the same question.

On Tue, Apr 29, 2008 at 3:24 PM, tom soyer <tom.soyer_at_gmail.com> wrote:

> Thanks Kingsford! What are the varClasses? I don't know how to

use them....

> If I choose varPower(), then does it mean the function would generate the

* > weights, w, so that w gives the most likely explanation of the
*

relationship

> between the variance and the independent variable?

* >
** >
** >
** >
** > On 4/29/08, Kingsford Jones <kingsfordjones_at_gmail.com> wrote:
** > > On Tue, Apr 29, 2008 at 6:20 AM, tom soyer <tom.soyer_at_gmail.com> wrote:
** > > > Hi,
** > > >
** > > > I would like to use a weighted lm model to reduce
*

heteroscendasticity.

* > I am
*

> > > wondering if the only way to generate the weights in R is through the

* > > > laborious process of trial and error by hand. Does anyone
*

know if R has

* > a
*

> > > function that would automatically generate the weights need for lm?

* > >
** > > Hi Tom,
** > >
** > > The 'weights' argument to the 'gls' function in the nlme package
** > > provides a great deal of flexibility in estimate weighting parameters
** > > and model coefficients. For example, if you want to model monotonic
** > > heteroscedasticity by estimating the weights $E(Y)^{-2\alpha}$,
** > > you can use the varPower variance function class. E.g., something like
** > >
** > > f1 <- gls(y ~ x1 + x2, data = your.data, weights = varPower())
** > >
** > > will estimate the regression coefficients and alpha parameter together
** > > via maximum likelihood. (note that the usual specification for varPower
** > is
** > > varPower(form = ~ your.formula), but by default the mean is used. See
** > > Ch 5 of the Pinheiro and Bates Mixed-effects Models book for details)
** > >
** > > Kingsford Jones
** > >
** >
** >
** >
** > --
** > Tom
*

On Fri, May 9, 2008 at 8:05 AM, tom soyer <tom.soyer_at_gmail.com> wrote:

> Hi, > > I need to correct for ar(1) behavior of my residuals of my model. I noticed > that there are multiple gls models in R. I am wondering if anyone > has experience in choosing between gls models. For example, how > should one decide whether to use lm.gls in MASS, or gls in nlme for > correcting ar(1)? Does anyone have a preference? Any advice is appreciated! > > Thanks, > > -- > Tom > > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] > > ______________________________________________ > R-help_at_r-project.org mailing list > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help > PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html > and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code. >

On Fri, May 9, 2008 at 8:05 AM, tom soyer <tom.soyer_at_gmail.com> wrote:

> Hi, > > I need to correct for ar(1) behavior of my residuals of my model. I noticed > that there are multiple gls models in R. I am wondering if anyone > has experience in choosing between gls models. For example, how > should one decide whether to use lm.gls in MASS, or gls in nlme for > correcting ar(1)? Does anyone have a preference? Any advice is appreciated! > > Thanks, > > -- > Tom > > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] > > ______________________________________________ > R-help_at_r-project.org mailing list > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help > PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html > and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code. > ______________________________________________R-help_at_r-project.org mailing list

https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code. Received on Fri 09 May 2008 - 21:04:04 GMT

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