# Re: [Rd] reference counting bug related to break and next in loops

From: Wacek Kusnierczyk <Waclaw.Marcin.Kusnierczyk_at_idi.ntnu.no>
Date: Thu, 04 Jun 2009 00:01:36 +0200

William Dunlap wrote:
> help('while') says:
> Usage:
> for(var in seq) expr
> while(cond) expr
> repeat expr
> break
> next
> Value:
> 'for', 'while' and 'repeat' return the value of the last
> expression evaluated (or 'NULL' if none was), invisibly. 'for'
> sets 'var' to the last used element of 'seq', or to 'NULL' if it
> was of length zero.
>
> 'break' and 'next' have value 'NULL', although it would be strange
> to look for a return value.
>
> Does the 'the last expression evaluated' mean (a) the value from
> evaluating 'expr' the last time it was completely evaluated or
> does it mean (b) the value of the last element of a {} expr that was
> evaluated?

it's interesting (if not "obvious") that

i = 1; y = 1:3
(while (TRUE) {

```       y[i] = 0
if (i==2) break
i = i +1
y + 0 })
```

# 0 2 3

does not reflect in the final value the modification made to y in the second, incomplete iteration, and that

i = 1; y = 1:3
(while (TRUE) {

```       y[i] = 0
if (i==2) break
i = i +1
y })
```

# 0 0 3

does reflect this modification, yet

i = 1; y = 1:3
(while (TRUE) {

```       y[i] = 0
if (i==2) { y = 1:3; break }
i = i +1
y })
```

# 0 0 3

makes a copy of y on y = 1:3 and returns the previous value. again, this surely has a "straightforward" explanation in the copy-when-scared mechanics, yet, intuitively, the returned value seems completely out of place.

> R currently follow interpretation (a), modulo reference
> counting bugs. My suggestion is to move to interpretation (b),
> so that the fact that break and next return NULL would mean that
> a broken-out-of loop would have value NULL. (Personally, I'm happy
> with S+'s return value for all loops being NULL in all cases, but
> that might break existing R code.)
>

i'm truly impressed by s+'s superiority over r.

> Of course, if the reference counting bug can be fixed without degrading
> performance in ordinary situations (does anyone look at the return
> value of a loop, particularly one that is broken out of?), then I'm
> happy
> retaining the current semantics.
>
>

... with the current lousy documentation improved to match the actual semantics.

vQ

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